Table of Contents: Help

1. FEATURED ITEMS

A sampling of the works that are included in the Twentieth Century North American Drama collection. Accessible from the product homepage, this section includes cover artwork or other images that are associated with the featured works, along with their titles and a brief description of each. Clicking on a featured item takes the user directly to the work itself.

2.INTRODUCTION

2.1 INTRODUCTION

Twentieth Century North American Dramaprovides sophisticated searching within the texts of more than 1,386 plays, as well as the ability to search author, play, production, theater, theatrical company and related materials.

For novices who wish to get quick access to key documents, we recommend using the Tables of Contents and the Simple Search tools.

For scholars who wish to conduct in-depth searches we recommend using the Multi-field Search, tool.  The search value of some of the fields in the database will not become apparent until more documents are added.

2.2 UNDERSTANDING THE STRUCTURE OF THE DATABASE

There are three basic ways to use the database.

  • Tables of Contents -- Use these to see what's contained in the database. This is the best way to check whether an author, a source, a play, a theater, a resource or a production company is included.  To use this tool, simply click on the appropriate table of contents button on the navigation bar.
  • Find Tools -- The "FIND" tools let you search for specific authors, plays, characters, scenes, theaters, productions and resources that the database contains and combine criteria to narrow what you're looking for.  The difference between the "FIND" tools and the "SEARCH" tools (explained next) is in the results they give. The "FIND" tools do not return documents, but rather lists of authors, plays, scenes, characters, theaters, productions and resources in the database. Note the difference between plays (a collection of scenes) and the scenes themselves (which are within a play).
  • Search Tools -- The "SEARCH" tools let you analyze words and documents that occur within the text of plays and that meet your search criteria. The "SEARCH" tools return plays or bibliographic citations or both.

2.3 SEARCH NAVIGATION BAR

The Search Navigation Bar lets you move around the database retrieval tools, including the Search tools. It is the same as the Tables of Contents tool bar, except that the Finding and Search tools are expanded, and the Tables of Contents tools are reduced. You can toggle between the two by clicking Tables of Contents or Search Texts in the section indicated above. (The graphic above is just an illustration; it does not have live links.)

The Search tools are divided into two separate categories, both of which search the texts in the database and return documents:

  • Simple Search - for novice users or those wishing to do a quick search. It provides basic searching of plays
  • Multi-field Search - for users that wish not only to search the text of plays, but also to restrict the plays being searched by specific criteria.
The light brown color indicates which Search tool you are currently using. As you move from tool to tool, the color moves to indicate which tool you've selected. You may click on the green parts of the Navigation Bar to move to the appropriate tool.

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2.4 TABLE OF CONTENTS NAVIGATION BAR

The Tables of Contents Navigation Bar lets you move around the Tables of Contents tools. It works in the same way as the Search Tool bar. When using these tools, the Tables of Contents are expanded and the Full Text Searches are collapsed. You can toggle between the two by clicking Find or Search Texts.

The Tables of Contents are divided into nine separate categories, all of which provide quick access to specific materials within the database.

  • Authors - a list of every major author in the database
  • Years - a complete list of every play in the database, organized by the approximate year of writing.
  • Plays - every play in the database is listed here, organized by author
  • Characters - this is a complete list of all the characters in the plays that are in the database.
  • Productions - this lists all the productions contained in the database.
  • Theaters - a complete list of all theaters contained in the database.
  • Related Media Resources - this lists related resources in the database such as playbills, posters, etc...
  • Theatrical Companies - this lists all theatrical companies in the database
  • Subjects - this is a selective listing of key subjects and the plays and scenes in which you'll find them.

The light brown color indicates which table of contents you are using. The brown moves as you move from tool to tool. You may click on the green parts of the Navigation bar to move to the appropriate tool. (The graphic above is just an illustration; it does not have live links.)

2.5 NOTES ON MARK-UP CONVENTIONS

Materials in the database have been transcribed using original spellings and grammar. In some documents spelling is inconsistent, even within a sentence.

For more information on mark-up conventions, contact the Editor.

2.6 ABOUT THE SEARCH SOFTWARE

PhiloLogic, a suite of software developed by the ARTFL Project at the University of Chicago in collaboration with The University of Chicago Library's Electronic Text Services, provides sophisticated searching of a wide variety of large encoded databases on the World Wide Web. It is an easy to use, yet powerful, full-text search, retrieval, and reporting system for large multimedia databases (texts, images, sound) with the ability to handle complex text structures with extensive indexed metadata.

PhiloLogic in its simplest form serves as a document retrieval or look up mechanism whereby users can search a relational database to retrieve given documents and, in some implementations, portions of texts such as acts, scenes, articles, or head-words. This same document retrieval mechanism serves as the basis for defining a corpus in a full-text search. One can, for example, either retrieve all documents in a database written by women from 1935 through 1945 or one can search for words or phrases within database which fit those criteria. The typical PhiloLogic search is broken down into five distinct stages: 1) defining a corpus (i.e. limiting a search), 2) word expansion, 3) word index searching, 4) text extraction, and 5) link resolution and formatting (e.g., SGML to HTML conversion). In other words, after defining a corpus (or one may search an entire database), one can execute a single term, phrase or proximity search. By looking up indices of the word(s) in a relational database, PhiloLogic extracts blocks of text containing the search term(s) with links to larger blocks of text. These extracts are formatted to display on a Web browser and sometimes include links to images, sound recordings, other texts, or even other databases.

In addition to simple word and phrase searches, users can perform more sophisticated searches by using extended UNIX-style regular expressions for complex wildcard searching and, in some implementations, morphological and orthographic expansion. All of these mechanisms to expand words can be combined using Boolean operators such as OR (the vertical bar "|") and AND (a space) within a variety of searching contexts.

Its functions were originally designed for scholarly research in databases of literary, religious, philosophical, and historical collections of texts as well as important historical encyclopedias and dictionaries. PhiloLogic handles notes so as not to interfere with phrase searching. Users can easily search words with diacritics (either by specifying accents or ignoring them by typing in uppercase) and non-Romanized scripts. At present there are some fifty databases on the Web under PhiloLogic containing languages such as ancient Greek, Latin, Hindi, and Urdu as well as nearly all Western European languages. PhiloLogic can also be set up to recognize or ignore manuscript notations such as different brackets, which can indicate spurious text or editorial emendations. Because the software recognizes typical text structures as real data objects, it understands units, such as words, sentences, paragraphs, sections, and pages, permitting very flexible searching and retrieval of these textual objects. Other full-text engines on the market search for strings of characters. Rather than searching for two words within the same sentence or paragraph (intellectual units), other engines must search for two words within a certain number of characters regardless of sentence or paragraph. With PhiloLogic scholars always know where they are in a given text since pagination can be displayed along side other objects. Such a high degree of indexing can lead to decreases in speed, PhiloLogic indexing has been maximized such that it is still incredibly fast on the Web.

For more information on PhiloLogic, contact Catherine Mardikes, ETS Coordinator, The University of Chicago Library.

 

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3. FINDING TOOLS

3.1 FIND AUTHORS

The Find Authors tool lets you find all the authors in the database that match your specific criteria.

Practical Example: Find all Nigerian authors.

  • Click on Find Authors on the navigation bar.
  • Enter "Nigerian" into the Nationality field.
  • Click on the SEARCH button.
  • The system responds with a list of all sources that meet the criteria.

Note: For a detailed discussion of the fields in Find Authors see the section on

Fields and their Descriptions below.

 

3.2 FIND PLAYS

The Find Plays tool lets you find all the plays in the database that match your specific criteria.

Practical Example: Find all plays in the database written by Muslims between 1850 and 1980.

  • Click on Find Plays on the navigation bar.
  • Enter "Muslim" into the Religion field.
  • Enter "1850-1980" into the Year Written field.
  • Click on the SEARCH button.
  • The system responds with a list of all plays that meet the criteria.

Note: For a detailed discussion of the fields in Find Plays see the section on Fields and their Descriptions below.

 

3.3 FIND SCENES

The Find Scenes tool lets you find all scenes in the database that match your specific criteria.

Practical Example: Find all interior scenes that contain musicians.

  • Click on Find Scenes on the navigation bar.
  • Enter "musician" into the Occupation field.
  • Enter "interior" into the Settings field.
  • Click on the SEARCH button.
  • The system responds with a list of all sources that meet the criteria.

Note: For a detailed discussion of the fields in Find Scenes see the section on Fields and their Descriptions below.

3.4 FIND CHARACTERS

The Find Sources tool lets you find all the original works in the database that match your specific criteria.

Practical Example: Find all characters who are postal workers in plays before 1930.

  • Click on the navigation bar to get to Find Sources.
  • Enter postal work in the Character field.
  • Enter -1930 in the Year Written field.
  • Click on the SEARCH button.
  • The system responds with a list of all sources that meet the criteria.

Note: For a detailed discussion of the fields in Find Characters see the section on Fields and their Descriptions below.

3.5 FIND THEATERS

The Find Theaters tool lets you find all theaters that are included in the database.

Practical Example: Find all theaters in New York.

  • Click on Find Theaters on the navigation bar.
  • Enter "New York" into the Location field.
  • Click on the SEARCH button.
  • The system responds with a list of all theaters that meet the criteria.

Note: For a detailed discussion of the fields in Find Theaters see the section on Fields and their Descriptions below.

3.6 FIND PRODUCTIONS

The Find Productions tool lets you find all the productions in the database that match your specific criteria.

Practical Example: Find all productions of Baraka's plays.

  • Click on Find Productions on the navigation bar.
  • Enter "Baraka" into the Author field.
  • Click on the SEARCH button.
  • The system responds with a list of all sources that meet the criteria.

Note: For a detailed discussion of the fields in Find Productions see the section on

Fields and their Descriptions below.

3.7 FIND RESOURCES

The Find Resources tool lets you find resources in the database that match your specific criteria.

Practical Example: Find all resources with Bullins as a subject.

  • Click on Find Resources on the navigation bar.
  • Enter "Bullins" into the Associated Authors field.
  • Click on the SEARCH button.
  • The system responds with a list of all authors that meet the criteria.

Note: For a detailed discussion of the fields in Find Resources see the section on

Fields and their Descriptions below.


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4. SEARCHING

4.1 SEARCH OVERVIEW

There are two basic kinds of searching in the database.

  • Full-Text Searching enables you to do keyword searching for occurrences of words or phrases in the database.
  • Bibliographic Searching allows you to create a set of documents for subsequent full-text searching. When you conduct a Bibliographic search, you are using descriptive fields to execute the search.
The conventions used in each kind of searching are slightly different as shown below.
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4.2 FULL-TEXT SEARCHING

4.2.1 Full-Text Searching

Full-Text Searching is when you search for specific words or phrases that occur in the texts themselves.

PhiloLogic supports wildcard characters and Boolean (logical) operators, which are modeled on UNIX regular expressions to perform "pattern matching" in full-text searching. Pattern matching allows identification of a large number of words corresponding to a defined pattern. Wildcard characters can be useful, for example, in identifying cognates made obscure by affixes and vowel weakening, inconsistencies due to irregular orthography, and variations on account of word inflection as well as for discovering potential emendations for uncertain readings. The most commonly used regular expression operators (wildcard and Boolean) are listed below.

4.2.2 Wildcard Characters in Full-Text Searching

. (period):
matches any single character (e.g., gentlem.n will retrieve gentleman and gentlemen).
* (asterisk):
matches any string of characters, anchoring the match at the beginning of a word (e.g., cigar* will match cigar, cigars, cigarette, etc.).
* (asterisk):
matches any string of characters, anchoring the match at the end of a word (e.g., *habit will retrieve habit, cohabit, and inhabit), or in the middle (e.g., c.*eers matches compeers, cheers, and careers).
.? (period question mark):
matches the characters entered or the characters entered plus one more character in place of the question mark (e.g., hono.?r matches both honor and honour and cat.? matches cat and cats, but not cathedral, Catherine, etc.).
[a-z] (brackets):
matches a single character found in the specified range (e.g., [c-f]at will match cat, dat, eat, and fat) or any letters within the brackets (e.g., civili[zs]e will match both civilize and civilise).
E (capital letter):
matches all accented and non-accented forms (e.g., to search naïveté regardless of accents type naIvetE).

Note: If you are using wildcard characters and would like to see a full list of the words matching your search-term, then run your search as a Frequency by Author search. The results page of a Frequency by Author search lists all the terms found in a database that match your search-term.

4.2.3 Wildcards and Boolean Operators in Full-Text Searching

  • The vertical line ( | ) is the OR operator (e.g., avarice|greed or holy ghost|spirit).
  • Space: serves as the AND operator in sentence and paragraph Proximity Searching (e.g., church state retrieve all cases where church and state appear in the same specified context; this is not the case in phrase searching).
  • These expressions can be combined for more sophisticated searches; for example, searching
    old|aged|ancient m.n|fellow*
    finds any of the three adjectives together with the nouns man or fellow in the singular or plural.

4.2.4 Punctuation and Full-Text Searching

  • Hyphens: Hyphens act as word separators. Thus, one should treat hyphenated expressions as separate words excluding the hyphen (e.g., if searching for all-powerful, type in all powerful).
  • Apostrophes: One must include apostrophes when searching words with apostrophes in them (e.g., only by typing God's will one find "God's"). In this database apostrophes do not act as word separators. Therefore contractions and elisions must be entered without spaces before or after the apostrophe.
  • Ampersands: The ampersand (&) is not a searchable character. Avoid Phrase Searches where an ampersand may be used as a conjunction and realize that &c must be entered as simply c.

4.2.5 Selecting a Search Option

PhiloLogic at this time offers two kinds of searches: "Single Term and Phrase Search," which is set up as the default, and "Proximity Searching in the Same Sentence or Paragraph." One may select and deselect a search option by clicking on the "radio" buttons.

For a fuller discussion see the PhiloLogic User Manual

 

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4.3 FIELD SEARCHING

4.3.1 Searching in Specific Fields

When entering search terms in bibliographic fields, as opposed to the full text search box, use the following Boolean operators: uppercase AND, OR, and NOT. One can use a NOT operator by itself (e.g., in the Type field enter: NOT editorial). It must be the first term in the box with no spaces preceding and it cannot be used with other Boolean operators

4.3.2 Advanced Field Searching with Regular Expression Operators

As in full text searching, one can use regular expression operators for more specialized searching. The caret sign (^) at the beginning of a word anchors the match at the beginning of the entry (e.g., ^child will find the personal event "Childbirth," but not "Adoption of Child). One can also use the verticle line (|) as a Boolean operator OR. With this operator one can exclude two terms from one's search (e.g., NOT adams|burr).

4.3.3 Punctuation and Spacing in Fielded Searching

When entering terms, punctuation and spacing must match exactly that in the fields. The following marks of punctuation produce a "Nothing found" message: ampersand (&), parentheses, question mark, and double quotes (""). If necessary for searching, replace the mark of punctuation with a period, which stand for any single character.

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5. FIELDS AND THEIR DESCRIPTIONS

5.1 LIST OF ALL FIELDS THAT CAN BE SEARCHED

Here is a summary table of all fields in the database, showing which tool they can be found on. Detailed descriptions can be found below.

Author
Character
Play
Production
Resource
Scene
Theater
Simple
Multi-field
Age When Writing: 
x
x
Author ID: 
x
Author: 
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
Awards: 
x
Capacity (Seats): 
x
Character Code: 
x
Character Name: 
x
x
Choreographer: 
x
Composer: 
x
x
x
Costumes: 
x
Director: 
x
First Production: 
x
Gender: 
x
x
x
x
Genre: 
x
x
x
x
x
x
Level of Education: 
x
Lighting: 
x
Literary Period: 
x
x
x
x
x
Location: 
x
Music: 
x
Nationality: 
x
x
x
x
x
Number of Scenes:
x
Occupation: 
x
x
x
x
Organizations: 
x
Performances: 
x
Performers: 
x
x
x
x
x
Person based on: 
x
Place of Birth: 
x
Place of Death: 
x
Play Title: 
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
Previously Unpublished: 
x
x
Producer: 
x
Production Awards: 
x
Production Code: 
x
Production Company: 
x
x
x
Production Title: 
x
Production Type: 
x
Race: 
x
x
x
x
x
Religion: 
x
x
Resource Title: 
x
Scene Title:
x
School Attended: 
x
Set Designer: 
x
Settings: 
x
x
x
Sexual Orientation: 
x
x
x
x
x
x
Sound 
x
Start Month/Start Year: 
x
Subject Headings: 
x
x
Theater District: 
x
x
Theater Name: 
x
x
x
x
Theater Style 
x
x
Type (of character): 
x
x
Type (of resource): 
Venue Code 
x
Written for: 
x
x
x
Year Created: 
x
Year First Produced: 
x
x
x
Year of Birth: 
x
Year of Death: 
x
Year Published: 
x
x
x
Year Written: 
x
x
x
x
Author
Character
Play
Production
Resource
Scene
Theater
Simple
Multi-field

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5.2 FIELD DESCRIPTIONS WITH SAMPLE SEARCHES

5.2.1 Age When Writing

Description: This field is the age in years of the author when the play was written.   The field is calculated from the author's birth date, and the estimated date a play was written.

How to use this field: Use this field to restrict a search to materials written by an author at a particular time in his or her life. It is particularly useful for examining changing perspectives over time, to explore differences in the vocabulary and preoccupations of the young and the old.

Practical Example: Find plays by men aged between 35 and 40 which contain the word slavery.

  • Click on Multi-field Search on the navigation bar.
  • Enter "slave*" into the Search Texts field. By keying in the asterisk you will retrieve all words that begin with slave, like slavery, slaves, slavish.
  • Enter "35-40" into the Age When Writing field.
  • Click on the SEARCH button.
  • The system responds with a list of all occurrences in context.

Note: To search for plays where the author's age is not known, enter 9999 into the field.

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5.2.2 Author

Description: This is the name of the playwright and includes all variant forms of the author's name such as nicknames, pennames, or aliases. The same official form of the name is used for display regardless of the form the author used at the time of writing.

How to use this field: Use this field to analyze word usage or materials written by a particular author. This is a mandatory field.

Practical Example: Find all works by a particular author.

  • Click on Simple Search on the navigation bar.
  • Enter the name of the author you want to restrict the search to in the Author field.
  • Click on the SEARCH button.
  • The system responds with a list of all relevant works.

Note: To see a list of available Author terms click the Terms button. Copy terms that you want and paste them into the Author field.

5.2.3 Author ID

Description: This field allows advanced users to search for all documents for a particular author based on their unique ID.

How to use this field: This field is used to provide a quick easy way to find all documents by a particular author.  This field requires the exact author ID to be keyed in.

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5.2.4 Awards

Description: This field indicates awards won by authors for plays that are within the database.  The field is created using standard reference works.  Please e-mail the editor if you are aware of awards that are missing.

How to use this field: Use this field to find who has won a particular award.

Practical Example: Find all plays that received an Obie award.

  • Click on Find Authors on the navigation bar.
  • Enter "Obie" into the Awards field.
  • Click on the SEARCH button.
  • The system responds with a list of all plays that have won Obies.

5.2.5 Capacity

Description: This field is used to identify theaters that have a particular seat capacity. 

How to use this field: Use this field to find theaters of a particular size.

Practical Example: Find all theaters that have fewer than 100 seats.

  • Click on Find Theaters on the navigation bar.
  • Enter "-100" into the Capacity field.
  • Click on the SEARCH button.
  • The system responds with a list of all theaters that have fewer than 100 seats.

Note: To find cases where the number of seats is not known enter 9999 into the field.

5.2.6 Character Code

Description: This field contains the unique character code for each character in the database.

How to use this field: This field is intended for advanced users to locate specific characters.

5.2.7 Character Name

Description: This field contains the character name as presented in the cast list at the beginning of a play.  This field also contains alternate names and abbreviations of a particular character.  Names are listed Last name, First name.

How to use this field: Use this field to find all scenes that contain a particular character.

Practical Example: Find all scenes that contain the character Henry Stampfield.

  • Click on Find Scenes on the navigation bar.
  • Enter "Stampfield" into the Character Name field.
  • Click on the SEARCH button.
  • The system responds with a summary of all scenes that contain this character.

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5.2.8 Choreographer

Description: This field contains the names of choreographers listed in productions that are included in the database, and for which information has been found.  It is not comprehensive.  Names are listed Last Name, First Name.

How to use this field: Use this field to find all productions by a particular choreographer.

Practical Example: Find all productions for which Dianne McIntyre was the choreographer.

  • Click on Find Productions on the navigation bar.
  • Enter "McIntyre, Dianne" into the Choreographer field.
  • Click on the SEARCH button.
  • The system responds with a summary of all productions choreographed by Dianne McIntyre.

Note: To find productions where the choreographer is not indicated, search for 'Not Indicated' in the Choreographer field.

5.2.9 Composer

Description: This field contains the names of composers listed in productions or plays that are included in the database, and for which information has been found.  It is not comprehensive.  Names are listed Last Name, First Name.

How to use this field: Use this field to find all plays that include music by a particular composer.

Practical Example: Find all plays for which Will Marion Cook was the composer.

  • Click on Find Plays on the navigation bar.
  • Enter "Cook" into the Composer field.
  • Click on the SEARCH button.
  • The system responds with a summary of all productions choreographed by Will Marion Cook.

Note: To find productions where the composer is not indicated, enter "Not Indicated" into the Composer field.

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5.2.10 Costumes

Description: This field contains the names of the person(s) responsible for costumes in productions that are included in the database, and for which information has been found.  It is not comprehensive.  Names are listed Last Name, First Name.

How to use this field: Use this field to find all plays that include costumes by a particular individual(s).

Practical Example: Find all plays where Judy Dearing was responsible for costumes.

  • Click on Find Productions on the navigation bar.
  • Enter "Dearing" into the Costumes box.
  • Click on the SEARCH button.
  • The system responds with a summary of all productions choreographed by Dearing.

Note: To find productions where the person responsible for costumes is not indicated, enter "Not Indicated" into the Costumes field.

5.2.11 Director

Description: This field contains the names of the director(s) for productions that are included in the database, and for which information has been found.  It is not comprehensive.  Names are listed Last Name, First Name.

How to use this field: Use this field to find all plays directed by a particular person.

Practical Example: Find all plays directed by Amiri Baraka.

  • Click on Find Productions on the navigation bar.
  • Enter "Baraka" into the Director field. 
  • Click on the SEARCH button.
  • The system responds with a summary of all productions directed by Baraka.

Note: To find productions where the director is not indicated, enter "Not Indicated" into the Director field.

5.2.12 First Production

Description: This field identifies the first known production of plays that are included in the database, and for which we have information.  The allowed values are Yes, No and Not Indicated.

How to use this field: Use this field to find all first productions of a particular play or author.

Practical Example: Find all first productions that took place on Broadway.

  • Click on Find Production on the navigation bar.
  • Enter "Broadway" into the Theater District field.
  • Select "Yes" from the pull-down menu in the First Production field.
  • Click on the SEARCH button.
  • The system responds with a summary of all productions that meet these criteria.

5.2.13 Gender

Description: This field indicates the gender of the author or of a character.

How to use this field: Use this field to search texts written either by men or by women, or for characters that are male or female.

Practical Example: Find all texts written by women that mention children.

  • Click on Multi-field Search on the navigation bar.
  • Select "F" from the pull-down menu in the Author's Gender field.
  • Enter "child*" into the Search Texts field.  This will retrieve all occurrences of words that begin with child, such as children, childish, etc.
  • Click on the SEARCH button.
  • The system responds with a list of all relevant passages that include the word children written by women.

5.2.14 Genre

Description: This field contains the genre of the play including Agit-Prop, Comedy, Drama, Fantasy, History, Melodrama, and Musical among others.

How to use this field: This field can be used to identify particular genres of plays, resources, scenes within the database.  It can also be combined with text searching to analyze how different words and phrases are used within each genre.

Practical Example: Examine the use of the words 'crime' and 'criminal' within the genre of Agit-Prop.

  • Click on Multi-Field Search on the navigation bar.
  • Enter "crim*" into the Search Text field.
  • Enter "Agit-Prop" into the Genre field.
  • Click on the SEARCH button.
  • The system responds with a summary of all documents that contain the word and that meet the criteria.

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5.2.15 Level of Education

Description: This field indicates the highest level of education completed by the author.  The possible options are: Finished college, Finished high school, Master's degree, Not indicated, Other advanced degree, Some college, Some elementary, Some high school.

How to use this field: Use this field to find authors by their level of education.

Practical Example: Find all authors in the database who completed high school and did not go on to college.

  • Click on Find Authors on the navigation bar.
  • Enter "finished high school" into the Level of Education field.
  • Click on the SEARCH button.
  • The system responds with a list of authors who meet the criteria.

5.2.16 Lighting

Description: This field contains the names of the person(s) responsible for lighting in productions that are included in the database, and for which information has been found.  It is not comprehensive.  Names are listed Last Name, First Name.

How to use this field: Use this field to find all plays that include lighting by a particular individual(s).

Practical Example: Find all plays where Roger Morgan was responsible for lighting.

  • Click on Find Productions on the navigation bar.
  • Enter "Morgan" into the Lighting field.
  • Click on the SEARCH button.
  • The system responds with a summary of all productions choreographed by Morgan.

Note: To find productions where the person responsible for lighting is not indicated, enter "Not Indicated" into the Lighting field.

5.2.17 Literary Period

Description: This field contains the literary period such as 'Black Arts Movement'   It is controlled.

How to use this field: Use this field to restrict searches to a particular literary period.  The field is best used in combination with other searches.   For example, you can find all authors in the database that wrote during a particular period, all works written during a particular literary period, all characters in plays of a particular literary period, or all uses of words and phrases during a particular literary period.

Practical Example: Find all plays written during the Black Arts Movement of the 1960's.

  • Click on Find Plays on the navigation bar.
  • Enter "Black Arts" into the Literary Period field.
  • Click on the SEARCH button.
  • The system responds with a summary of all plays that meet the criteria.

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5.2.18 Location

Description: This field contains the place where a theater is located.  This field is controlled and hierarchical.  In other words theaters in London can be found by searching for London, for England, for the United Kingdom, or for Europe. 

How to use this field: Use this field to find all theaters within a particular city, country, or region.

Practical Example: Find all theaters in London.

  • Click on Find Theaters on the navigation bar.
  • Enter "London" into the Location field.
  • Click on the SEARCH button.
  • The system responds with a summary of all theaters that fit the criteria.

Note: To see a list of available Location terms click on the Terms button. Copy terms that you want and paste them into the Location field.

5.2.19 Music

Description: This field contains the names of individuals responsible for the music listed in productions that are included in the database, and for which information has been found.  It is not comprehensive.  Names are listed Last Name, First Name.

How to use this field: Use this field to find all productions where the music was done by a particular individual.

Practical Example: Find all productions where the music was done by Ernie Scott.

  • Click on Find Productions on the navigation bar.
  • Enter "Scott, Ernie" into the Music field.
  • Click on the SEARCH button.
  • The system responds with a summary of all productions where the music was done by Ernie Scott.

Note: To find productions where the individual responsible is not indicated, enter "Not Indicated" into the Music field.

5.2.20 Nationality

Description: This field enables you to find materials written by individuals of a particular nationality.

How to use this field: Use this field when you want to restrict your searches to all materials written by authors of a particular nationality.

Practical Example: Find all plays written by Canadians.

  • Click on Find Plays on the navigation bar.
  • Enter "Canadian" into the Nationality field.
  • Click on the SEARCH button.
  • The system responds with a list of all occurrences that meet the criteria.

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5.2.21 Number of Characters

Description: This fields enables you to search for the number of characters within a play.

How to use this field: Use this field to find plays that have a certain number of characters.

Practical Example: Find all plays with 5 scenes.

  • Click on Find Scenes on the navigation bar.
  • Enter "5" into the Number of Characters field.
  • Click on the SEARCH button.
  • The system responds with a list of all occurrences.

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5.2.22 Occupation

Description: This field describes the author's occupation, if any. It is an optional field.

How to use this field: Use this field to find documents written by an author in a particular occupation - for example, all teachers.

Note: All occupations throughout an author's life are entered. This is not tied to when an author is writing. An individual may have several occupations throughout his or her life.

Practical Example: Find all plays written by missionaries.

  • Click on Find Authors on the navigation bar.
  • Enter "missionary" into the Occupation field.
  • Click on the SEARCH button.
  • The system responds with a list of all occurrences that meet the criteria.

Note: To see what Occupation terms are available click on the Terms button. Copy terms that you want and paste them into the field. Be careful to delete any semicolons and replace them with the appropriate Boolean operator.

5.2.23 Organizations

Description: This field is a subject field that describes organizations that are referred to within scenes, such as the Ku Klux Klan.  It is only accessible in the Find Scene screen.  It lists non-fictional organizations only.

How to use this field: Use this field to find all scenes that feature a particular organization.

Practical Example: Find all scenes that contain the Ku Klux Klan.

  • Click on Find Scenes on the navigation bar.
  • Enter "Ku Klux Klan" into the Organization field.
  • Click on the SEARCH button.
  • The system responds with a summary of all scenes that contain this organization.

5.2.24 Performances

Description: This field contains the number of performances for specific productions that we have listed in the database.  It is a numeric field.

How to use this field: Use this field to find all productions that have a specific number of or range of performances.  To search for performances less than a particular number use a dash to the left of the number (e.g. -50 will retrieve all productions that had up to 50 performances).  To search for performance greater than a particular number use a dash to the right of the number (e.g. 50- will retrieve all productions that had more than 50 performances.)  To find cases where the number of performances is not known key in 9999.

Practical Example: Find all productions with between 50 and 100 performances.

  • Click on Find Productions on the navigation bar.
  • Enter "50-100" into the Performances field. 
  • Click on the SEARCH button.
  • The system responds with a summary of all productions that meet this criteria.

5.2.25 Performers

Description: This field contains the name of performers within first productions for which information is in the database.  This field also contains alternate names and abbreviations of a particular character.  Names are listed Last name, First name.

How to use this field: Use this field to find all first productions that contain a particular person, or to find which characters a particular person has played, or which theaters a particular performer has performed.

Practical Example: Find all characters that were played by James Earl Jones.

  • Click on Find Character on the navigation bar.
  • Enter "Jones" into the Performer field.
  • Click on the SEARCH button.
  • The system responds with a summary of all characters that Jones has played.

5.2.26 Person Based On

Description: This field contains the name of characters in the database based on non-fictional individuals.

How to use this field: Use this field to find all scenes that feature a particular individual.

Practical Example: Find all characters that are based on Paul Robeson.

  • Click on Find Character on the navigation bar.
  • Enter "Robeson" into the Person Based On field.
  • Click on the SEARCH button.
  • The system responds with a summary of all characters in the database based on Robeson.

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5.2.27 Place of Birth

Description: This field describes the location of the author's birth, if known. It is used only in the Find Author section of the database. It is an optional field.

How to use this field: Use this field to find authors who were born in a particular place or region.  Use "Not indicated" to find occurrences where we have been unable to determine the place of birth.

Practical Example: Find all authors who were born in Africa.

  • Click on Find Authors on the navigation bar.
  • Enter "Africa" into the Place of Birth field.
  • Click on the SEARCH button.
  • The system responds with a list of all occurrences.

Note: To see what Place of Birth terms are available click the Terms button. Copy terms that you want and paste them into the box. Be careful to delete any extraneous spaces or semicolons and replace them with the appropriate Boolean operator.

5.2.28 Place of Death

Description: This field describes the location of the author's death, if known. It is used only in the Find Author section of the database. It is an optional field.

How to use this field: Use this field to find authors who were born in a particular place or region.  Use "Not indicated" to find occurrences where we have been unable to determine the place of death.

Practical Example: Find all authors who were born in New York.

  • Click on Find Authors on the navigation bar.
  • Enter "New York" into the Place of Death field.
  • Click on the SEARCH button.
  • The system responds with a list of all occurrences that meet the criteria.

Note: To see what Place of Death terms are available click on the Terms button. Copy terms that you want and paste them into the field. Be careful to delete any extraneous spaces or semicolons and replace them with the appropriate Boolean operator.

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5.2.29 Play Title

Description: This field contains the title of the play. This is a mandatory field.

How to use this field: This field is intended for users to locate specific plays.  You can also look for keywords within titles using this field.

Practical Example: Find all plays with Black in the title.

  • Click on Find Plays on the navigation bar.
  • Enter "Black" into the Play Title field.
  • Click on the SEARCH button.
  • The system responds with a summary of all plays that meet the criteria.

5.2.30 Previously Unpublished

Description: This field is a 'Yes/No' field that indicates whether a play has been formally published prior to 2002.   This field is populated through research of the existing bibliographic literature, and in some cases with information from the original author.

How to use this field: Use this field to find all plays in the database that have not been published before.

Practical Example: Find all unpublished plays in the database.

  • Click on Find Plays on the navigation bar.
  • Select "YES" from pull-down menu in the Previously Unpublished field.
  • Click on the SEARCH button.
  • The system responds with a summary of all plays that meet these criteria.

5.2.31 Producer

Description: This field contains the names of the producer(s) for productions that are included in the database, and for which information has been found.  It is not comprehensive.  Names are listed Last Name, First Name.

How to use this field: Use this field to find all plays directed by a particular person.

Practical Example: Find all plays produced by Bob Swash.

  • Click on Find Productions on the navigation bar.
  • Enter "Swash" into the Producer field.
  • Click on the SEARCH button.
  • The system responds with a summary of all productions directed by Baraka..

Note: To find productions where the producer is not indicated, enter "Not Indicated" into the Producer field.

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5.2.32 Production Awards

Description: This field contains awards for productions that are included in the database.

How to use this field: Use this field to find all productions that received a particular award.

Practical Example: Find all productions that received an Obie award.

  • Click on Find Productions on the navigation bar.
  • Enter "Obie" into the Production Awards field.
  • Click on the SEARCH button.
  • The system responds with a summary of all productions that have received an Obie.

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5.2.33 Production Code/ Play Code/Scene Code

Description: This field contains the unique production  code for each production in the database.

How to use this field: This field is intended for advanced users to locate specific productions.

5.2.34 Production Company

Description: This field contains the theatrical company responsible for a production.

How to use this field: Use this field to find all plays or productions for a particular theatrical company.

Practical Example: Find all plays that were produced by the Allied Arts Players production company.

  • Click on Find Plays on the navigation bar.
  • Enter "Allied Arts Players" into the Production Company field.
  • Click on the SEARCH button.
  • The system responds with a summary of all plays that fit the criteria.

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5.2.35 Production Title

Description: This field contains the title of productions in the database.  The title is a composite of the play title, the production company, the theater where the production was staged, the city in which the production was staged and the date of the first performance.

How to use this field: This field is primarily used to identify particular productions.  It can be used to execute keyword searches in titles.

5.2.36 Production Type

Description: This field contains the type of production, for example a run, a tour or a single performance.

How to use this field: Use this field to find different types of productions.

Practical Example: Find all runs of the play Dessalines.

  • Click on Find Productions on the navigation bar.
  • Enter "Dessalines" into the Play Title field.
  • Enter "run" into the Play Type field.
  • Click on the SEARCH button.
  • The system responds with a summary of all productions that fit the criteria.

5.2.37 Race

Description: This field indicates whether the author was White, Black, Asian, American Indian or not indicated.

How to use this field: Use this field to find all documents written by authors from a particular race or races.

Note: If you enter "Not Indicated" the database will respond with all documents where the race of the author is unknown.

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5.2.38  Religion

Description: This describes the religious background or beliefs of the author.

How to use this field: This field can be used to analyze the vocabulary, behavior and experiences of authors with particular religious beliefs.

Practical Example: Find materials that discuss Sunday written by Quakers.

  • Click on Multi-field Search on the navigation bar.
  • Enter "Sunday" into the Search Texts field.
  • Enter "Quaker" into the Religion field.
  • Click on the SEARCH button.
  • The system responds with a list of all occurrences.

Note: Terms in this field are standardized in an authority file. "Not Indicated" is used when we have been unable to ascertain the religion. "Christian" is used where a specific denomination is not known. To see a list of available Religion terms click on the Terms button. Copy terms and paste them into the Religion field.

5.2.39 Resource Title

Description: This field contains the title of a particular resource contained in the database.

How to use this field: Use this field to find a particular resource.  To see a list of resources in the database click the Terms button to the right of the Resource Title field.

5.2.40  Scene Title

Description: This field contains the title of a particular scene in the database.

How to use this field: Use this field to find a particular scene.  To see a list of all scenes in the database click the Terms button to the right of the Scene Title field.

5.2.41 School Attended

Description: This field allows you to search for authors who attended a specific school.

How to use this field: Use this field to find authors who attended a specific college or university.

Practical Example: Find all authors who attended Cambridge University.

  • Click on Find Authors on the navigation bar.
  • Enter "Cambridge University" into the School Attended field.
  • Click on the SEARCH button.
  • The system responds with a list of all authors who meet the criteria.

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5.2.42 Set Designer

Description: This field contains the names of individuals responsible for the set design listed in productions that are included in the database, and for which information has been found.  It is not comprehensive.  Names are listed Last Name, First Name.

How to use this field: Use this field to find all set designers for productions.

Practical Example: Find all productions where the set design was done by Richard Harmon.

  • Click on Find Productions on the navigation bar.
  • Enter "Harmon, Richard" into the Set Design field.
  • Click on the SEARCH button.
  • The system responds with a summary of all productions where the set design was done by Richard Harmon.

Note: To find productions where the set designer is not indicated, enter "Not Indicated" into the Set Design field.

5.2.43 Settings

Description: This field contains the setting for a particular scene, for example Port-au-Prince, Haiti - Urban - Street - Exterior.  It is taken from the manuscript of the play.  It is not controlled.

How to use this field: Use this field to find all interior or exterior scenes, or scenes in a particular location or that contain bars.   It can be used with a keyword.  If this field is used in the Find Play or Multi-Field Search screens it will respond with plays that contain a particular scene, rather than scenes.

Practical Example: Find all exterior scenes in an urban setting.

  • Click on the navigation bar to Find Scenes.
  • Enter "exterior AND urban" into the Setting field.
  • Click on the SEARCH button.
  • The system responds with a summary of all exterior scenes with an urban setting.

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5.2.44 Sexual Orientation

Description: This field contains the sexual orientation of a character within a play.  It is controlled.   Potential values are Bisexual, Homosexual, Heterosexual, Not Indicated.  Only if an author identifies a character's sexual orientation in the manuscript is it entered as such.

How to use this field: This field can be used in a number of ways.  In the Find Character screen it enables you to find characters of a particular orientation.  In the Find Scene screen it enables you to find scenes by the sexual orientation of the characters within them.

Practical Example: Find all homosexual characters in the database.

  • Click on Find Characters on the navigation bar.
  • Enter "homosexual" into the Sexual Orientation field.
  • Click on the SEARCH button.
  • The system responds with a summary of all texts that meet the criteria.

5.2.45 Sound

Description: This field contains the names of individuals responsible for the sound in productions that are included in the database, and for which information has been found.  It is not comprehensive.  Names are listed Last Name, First Name.

How to use this field: Use this field to find all productions where the sound was done by a particular individual.

Practical Example: Find all productions where the sound was done by Gordon Watkins.

  • Click on Find Productions on the navigation bar.
  • Enter "Watkins, Gordon" into the Sound field.
  • Click on the SEARCH button.
  • The system responds with a summary of all productions where the sound was done by Gordon Watkins.

Note: To find productions where the person responsible for sound is not indicated, enter "Not Indicated" into the Sound field.

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5.2.46 Start Month/Start Year

Description: These fields contain the month and year in which a particular production began.

How to use this field: Use this field to find all productions done before, after or within a range of months or years.  To find productions before a certain year place a dash to the left of the year (e.g. -1960 will find productions begun before 1960).  To find productions after a certain year place a dash to the right of the year (e.g. 1960- will find productions after 1960).  You can also search for ranges (e.g. 1960-1980).

Practical Example: Find all productions that began between 1960 and 1980.

  • Click on Find Productions on the navigation bar.
  • Enter "1960-1980" into the Start Year field.
  • Click on the SEARCH button.
  • The system responds with a summary of all productions where the set design was done between 1960-1980.

Note: To find productions where the start month or year is unknown enter 9999 into the field.

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5.2.47 Subject Headings

Description: This is a composite field consisting of all terms in the Name Subject field, Organization Subject field, Title as Subject field, Topical Subject field, Broad Subject field, Historical Event subject field, and Geographic Subject field.   This field is used in two different locations - one for scenes and one for plays.  The subject headings for scenes are much more specific than those for plays.   Subject headings for plays are broad and are intended to be general.

How to use this field: This field can be used to find a wide range of materials, including specific places, people, works of literature, and historical events.

Practical Example: Find all plays pertaining to family.

  • Click on Find Plays on the navigation bar.
  • Enter "family" into the Subject Headings field.
  • Click on the SEARCH button.
  • The system responds with a list of all occurrences that meet the criteria.

Note: To see what Subject terms are available click on the Terms button. Copy terms that you want and paste them into the field. Be careful to delete any semicolons and replace them with the appropriate Boolean operator.

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5.2.48 Theater District

Description: This field contains the districts in which theaters are located.

How to use this field: Use this field to find all theaters or productions within a district.

Practical Example: Find all productions in the West End.

  • Click on Find Productions on the navigation bar.
  • Enter "West End" into the Theater District field.
  • Click on the SEARCH button.
  • The system responds with a list of all occurrences that meet the criteria.

Note: To find productions where the theater district is not indicated, enter "Not Indicated" into the Theater District field.

5.2.49 Theater Name

Description: This field contains the name of theaters that are in the database.

How to use this field: Use this field to find a particular theater.  This field can also be used to identify what plays have been produced at a particular theater.

Practical Example: Find all plays produced at the Market Theatre.

  • Click on Find Plays on the navigation bar.
  • Enter "Market Theatre" into the Theater Name field.
  • Click on the SEARCH button.
  • The system responds with a list of all occurrences that meet the criteria.

Note: To see a list of available Theater Name terms click on the Terms button. Copy terms that you want and paste them into the Theater Name field.

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5.2.50 Theater Style

Description: This field describes the kind of theater.  It is controlled.  Allowable terms in this field include proscenium, theater-in-round, open-air, square.

How to use this field: Use this field to find a production or theaters that use a particular kind of theater style.

Practical Example: Find all open-air theaters in the database.

  • Click on Find Theaters on the navigation bar.
  • Enter "Open-air" into the Theater Style field.
  • Click on the SEARCH button.
  • The system responds with a list of all occurrences.

5.2.51 Type (of character)

Description: This field describes the character type.  It is controlled.  Allowable terms in this field include human, mythical, animal.

How to use this field: Use this field to find a specific type of character.

Practical Example: Find all characters that are deities.

  • Click on Find Characters on the navigation bar.
  • Enter "Deity" into the Type field.
  • Click on the SEARCH button.
  • The system responds with a list of all occurrences that meet the criteria.

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5.2.52 Type (of resource)

Description: This field describes the resource type.  It is controlled.  Examples of terms in this field include playbill, poster, flyer.

How to use this field: Use this field to find particular kinds of resources.

Practical Example: Find all posters in the database.

  • Click on Find Resources on the navigation bar.
  • Enter "Poster" into the Type field.
  • Click on the SEARCH button.
  • The system responds with a list of all occurrences that meet the criteria.

5.2.53 Venue Code

Description: This field contains the unique venue code for each theater in the database.

How to use this field: This field is intended for advanced users to locate specific theaters.

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5.2.54 Written For

Description: This field contains the medium that the play was originally created for - e.g. radio, stage, television. It is controlled.

How to use this field: Use this field to find all plays written for a particular medium, to search for scenes that were written for a particular medium, or to examine the texts of plays written for one medium versus another. 

Practical Example: Find all scenes written for radio after 1950.

  • Click on Find Scenes on the navigation bar.
  • Enter "Radio" into the Written for field.
  • Click on the SEARCH button.
  • The system responds with a list of all occurrences.

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5.2.55 Year Created (for resources)

Description: This field contains the year a resource was created or published as far as can be determined.  This date is populated by taking the date of the performance referred to in the resource, by taking the date a resource was published, or from the date of written on the resource.   In some cases the resource may have been created earlier and not published until later.

How to use this field: Use this field to find all resources created/published before, after or within a range of years.  To find resources created/published before a certain year place a dash to the left of the year (e.g. -1960 will find resources created before 1960).  To find resources after a certain year place a dash to the right of the year (e.g. 1960- will find resources after 1960).  You can also search for ranges (e.g. 1960-1980).

Practical Example: Find all resources that were created/published between 1960 and 1980.

  • Click on Find Resources on the navigation bar.
  • Enter "1960-1980" into the Year created field.
  • Click on the SEARCH button.
  • The system responds with a summary of all occurrences that meet the criteria.

Note: To find resources where the year is unknown enter 9999 into the field.

5.2.56 Year First Produced

Description: This field contains the year a play was first produced.

How to use this field: Use this field to find all plays first produced before a year, after a year or within a range of years.
To find plays first produced before a certain year place a dash to the left of the year (e.g. -1960 will find plays produced before 1960).
To find resources after a certain year place a dash to the right of the year (e.g. 1960- will find plays first produced after 1960).
You can also search for ranges (e.g. 1960-1980).

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5.2.57 Year of Birth

Description: This field describes the year of the author's birth, if known. It is used only in the Find Author section of the database. It is an optional field.

How to use this field: Use this field to find authors born in a particular year or period.

Note: To find occurrences where we have been unable to determine the year of birth enter 9999 into the field.

Practical Example: Find all authors born from 1900-1920.

  • Click on Find Authors on the navigation bar.
  • Enter "1900-1920" into the Year of Birth field.
  • Click on the SEARCH button.
  • The system responds with a list of all occurrences that meet the criteria.

5.2.58 Year of Death

Description: This field describes the year of the author's death, if known. It is used only in the Find Author section of the database. It is an optional field.

How to use this field: Use this field to find authors who died in a particular year or period.

Note: To search for occurrences where we could not ascertain the year of death, enter 9999 into the field.

Practical Example: Find all authors born following the Civil War.

  • Click on Find Authors on the navigation bar.
  • Enter 1866-1999 into the Year of Death field.
  • Click on the SEARCH button.
  • The system responds with a list of all occurrences that meet the criteria.

5.2.59 Year Published

Description: This field contains the year a play was published as far as can be determined.  This date is populated by taking the earliest date of publication.

How to use this field: Use this field to find all plays published before, after or within a range of years.
To find plays published before a certain year place a dash to the left of the year (e.g. -1960 will find plays published before 1960)
To find plays after a certain year place a dash to the right of the year (e.g. 1960- will find plays after 1960).
You can also search for ranges (e.g. 1960-1980).

Practical Example: Find all plays that were published between 1960 and 1980.

  • Click on Find Plays on the navigation bar.
  • Enter "1960-1980" into the Year published field.
  • Click on the SEARCH button.
  • The system responds with a summary of all occurrences.

Note: To find plays where the publication year is unknown enter 9999 into the field.

5.2.60 Year Written

Description: This field contains the year a play was written or published as far as can be determined.  This date is populated by taking the earliest date of the performance, by taking the date a play was published, or from the date written on the original manuscript.   In some cases the play may have been created earlier and not published until later.

How to use this field: Use this field to find all plays created/published before, after or within a range of years.
To find plays created/published before a certain year place a dash to the left of the year (e.g. -1960 will find plays created before 1960).
To find plays after a certain year place a dash to the right of the year (e.g. 1960- will find plays after 1960).
You can also search for ranges (e.g. 1960-1980).

Practical Example: Find all plays that were created/published between 1960 and 1980.

  • Click on Find Plays on the navigation bar.
  • Enter "1960-1980" into the Year created field.
  • Click on the SEARCH button.
  • The system responds with a summary of all occurrences that meet the criteria.

Note: To find plays where the year is unknown enter 9999 into the field.

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6. RESULTS

6.1 OCCURRENCES WITH CONTEXT/CONTEXT DISPLAY

Occurrences with Context Display is the default results format option. This report indicates the number of texts searched, the search term(s) entered in a defined corpus, and the total number of occurrences found. (The number of occurrences displays at the top of the report if PhiloLogic has detected the number before generating the first 25 occurrences. If not, the total number of occurrences displays at the bottom of the report.) Following this general information is a list of occurrences.

Each occurrence is represented by a short citation consisting of abbreviations for the author's name and the title of the work with a reference to where the term(s) in question occur within the document. (Full entries for the short citations are listed in the Results Bibliography at the bottom of the report.) Along side the citation is listed several levels of context, shown in brown in the example below (links to the table of contents and occurrences have been disabled).


1. Aldridge, Ira Frederick(?)-1867. "Black Doctor"
[Page | Paragraph | Scene | Act | Table of Contents]

twice so nearly snatched away--I am happy, I am proud! PAULINE Good Fabian! But this mystery that cause me to-- FABIAN Mystery! PAULINE Yes, which perhaps you can help me to unravel. Since you have ceased to come to the Reynerie, a man has been seen at night wandering about the dwelling, near my window; he has eluded all search-- all pursuit; one night the negro on duty fired at him quite at random, and next morning, at the foot of a large tree, traces of


  • The citation indicates the original source of the material.
  • Page 6 - indicates the page where the occurrence was found. Click on it to go to the page.
  • Paragraph - indicates the paragraph where the occurrence was found. Click on it to go to the Paragraph.
  • Scene - indicates the Scene where the occurrence was found. Click on Scene to go to it.
  • Act - indicates the Act where the occurrence was found.  Click on Act to go to it.
  • Table of Contents - provides you with the table-of-contents for the play, including Acts and Scenes. Click to view it.

Below the short citation there is a passage of text consisting of some forty words on either side of the key word, which is highlighted. PhiloLogic, however, displays as much text as needed to capture all words in a multi-term search and all search words are highlighted. The reference listed with the short citation is linked to the text. If clicking on the page number, one retrieves the full page with key words still highlighted. The same is true for paragraph and the three other levels of hierarchy. Links to the previous and next page, paragraph or levels respectively, if they exist, are provided.

Note: Remember that, when searching for two or more terms within the same paragraph, the context display expands the amount of text displayed to include all of the search terms in the paragraph. At times the text displayed in a proximity search to accommodate all the search terms may be several screens in length since some paragraph divisions in documents in some databases are very far apart.

In cases where a search finds more than 25 occurrences, PhiloLogic provides the first 25 occurrences with links at the bottom of the report to the remaining occurrences of the search in sets of one hundred. One may also retrieve a full list of occurrences which can be useful for down-loading or printing, but which may take some time to retrieve. Note: when results number over hundreds or thousands of occurrences, the report may not be complete when first starting to view results. In this case, one sees the message "The search is still in progress. 908 occurrences have been generated so far. (please follow the link(s) below to check on the progress) ". The server continues to append results until it has completed the entire report and, by clicking on any of the sets of one hundred, one can retrieve the full report.

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6.2 LINE-BY-LINE DISPLAY

The Line-by-Line display indicates the number of texts searched, the search term(s) entered in a defined corpus, and the total number of occurrences found. (The number of occurrences displays at the top of the report if PhiloLogic has detected the number before generating the first 25 occurrences. If not, the total number of occurrences displays at the bottom of the report.) Following this general information is a list of occurrences. Each occurrence is represented by a short citation consisting of abbreviations for the author's name and the title of the work with a reference to where the term(s) in question occur within the document. References (E.g. Bayley:D1266-14) are a concatenation of an Author abbreviation, the document identifier within the database, and the Page Number. The report is followed by the Results Bibliography, wherein you can find a full citation for the References in the report. Here is an example of the Line-by-Line display (links to the table of contents and occurrences have been disabled).


Bibliographic criteria: none (All documents)
Search criteria: help

Your search found 8 occurrences

Context Display     Sorted by Author     Sorted by Source      Frequency by Year

Occurrences 1-52:

1. PL000010 (p.6) E Yes, which perhaps you can help me to unravel. Since you have ceas
2. PL000010 (p.7) without) ST. LUCE (without) Help! Help! (CHRISTIAN appears at the e

3. PL000010 (p.7) ut) ST. LUCE (without) Help! Help! (CHRISTIAN appears at the entranc
4. PL000010 (p.7) so I called out lustily for help, and my kind stars sent you to my
5. PL000010 (p.12) est, waves it, shouting for help. The sea reaches them, curtain fal
6. PL000010 (p.17) death surrounding us, when help appeared impossible, as with her l
7. PL001928 (p.10)his plantation ere I summon help to make thee leave! DESSALINES Thy
8. PL001928 (p.11)ome necessary fowl! FLAVIEN Help! Help! [Enter Slaves, stand undete


A Line-by-Line Display differs from a Context Report in that it limits the text displayed to only a single line of text. The search term, which is highlighted, is centered in the line so that a user can quickly scan the results. At the bottom of the report one finds the Results Bibliography, which lists the full references for the short citations above. Unlike the Context report, a Line-by-Line Display only offers one level of linked context.

The user may toggle from the Line-by-Line Display to a Context Report or to the results sorted by Author and Sorted by Source.

In cases where a search finds more than 25 occurrences, PhiloLogic provides the first 25 occurrences with links at the bottom of the report to the remaining occurrences of the search in sets of one hundred. One may also retrieve a full list of occurrences which can be useful for down-loading or printing, but which may take some time to retrieve. Note: when results number over hundreds or thousands of occurrences, the report may not be complete when first starting to view results. In this case, one sees the message "The search is still in progress. [908] occurrences have been generated so far. (please follow the link(s) below to check on the progress) ". The server continues to append results until it has completed the entire report and, by clicking on any of the sets of one hundred, one can retrieve the full report.

Note: When executing a "Proximity Search," especially with paragraph set as the searching parameter, it is best to avoid the Line-by-line format since all search terms are not likely to be in the single line of text displayed. The term that is located first in the paragraph is the one that is centered in the single line of text. Using the Context results format ensures that all terms are included in the display even if the paragraph should happen to run for several pages. One can switch from a Line-by-line format to a Context Report format at any time while viewing results and switch back. PhiloLogic takes the user to the same set of results being viewed at the time of the switch.

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6.3 SORTING RESULTS BY AUTHOR

Results can be sorted using a Sorted by Author report. This report indicates how many times a work occurred in documents by a particular author. To do this choose Frequency by Author at the bottom of the Simple or Multi-field Search screens, or select Sort by Author from the Context or Line by Line display.

A Sorted by Author report indicates the bibliographic criteria entered, the number of documents searched, the search term(s) entered, the number of unique forms derived from the search term(s) within the database, a list of those unique forms, and the total number of occurrences found in the defined corpus. Following this information, the report indicates the number of occurrences by author in descending order of frequency with individual titles listed with a link to the digital table of contents for each title and a link to the occurrences found within that title.

This report also shows what terms within a database one's search criteria are searching (for example, one can discover that entering the search term help.* in the database searches for all these unique terms above). See below for an example (links to the table of contents and occurrences have been disabled).


Bibliographic criteria: none
Searching Entire Database for help.*.
Number of Unique Forms: 7
Expanded Word List: help | helped | helping | helpless | helps | Help | Helplessness

Your search found 69 occurrences.

Context Display      Line by Line Display      Frequency by Author      Frequency by Source      Frequency by Year


Frequency by Author in descending numeric order:

1. Harrison, Paul Carter, 1936-?: 14
      14: Ameri/Cain Gothic  [Occurrences]
2. Dean, Phillip Hayes, 1937?-?: 11
      11: Paul Robeson  [Occurrences]
3. Easton, William Edgar, 1861-?: 8
      8: Dessalines  [Occurrences]
4. Johnson, Georgia Douglas, 1877?-1966: 7
      7: A Sunday Morning in the South  [Occurrencess>]
5. Dike, Fatima, 1948-?: 6
      6: So What's New?  [Occurrences]
6. Aldridge, Ira Frederick, 1807?-1867: 6
      6: The Black Doctor  [Occurrences]
7. Bullins, Ed, 1935-?: 4


Any definable corpus or search can be used in generating this report. Unlike Context Display and Line-by-line reports, this report does not display text, only frequency statistics with links to occurrences displayed in Context display format. Note: the sets of occurrences linked to from the frequency report are numbered in chronological order, not by frequency. In other words, clicking on the [Occurrences] link for a title at the top of the list could, for example, bring up occurrences numbered 21-28 instead of 1-8 because that author's title while ranked first in frequency is not first chronologically.

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6.4 SORTING RESULTS BY SOURCE

Results can be sorted using a Sorted by Source report. To do this choose Frequency by Source at the bottom of the Simple or Multi-field Search screens, or click on Sort by Source when in a context display.

This report indicates the bibliographic criteria entered, the number of documents searched, the search term(s) entered, the number of unique forms derived from the search term(s) within the database, a list of those unique forms, and the total number of occurrences found in the defined corpus. Following this information, the report indicates the number of occurrences by title in descending order of frequency with a link to the digital table of contents for each title and a link to the occurrences found within that title.

This report also shows what terms within a database one's search criteria are searching (for example, one can discover that entering the search term help.* in the database searches for all these unique terms above). See below for an example (links to the table of contents and occurrences have been disabled).


Bibliographic criteria: none
Searching Entire Database for help.*.
Number of Unique Forms: 7
Expanded Word List: help | helped | helping | helpless | helps | Help | Helplessness

Your search found 69 occurrences.

Context Display      Line by Line Display      Frequency by Author      Frequency by Source      Frequency by Year

Frequency by Source in descending numeric order:

1. AmeriCain Gothic: 14
      14: Harrison, Paul Carter, 1936-? Ameri/Cain Gothic  [Occurrences]
2. Paul Robeson: 11
      11: Dean, Phillip Hayes, 1937(?)-? Paul Robeson  [Occurrences]
3. Dessalines: 8
      8: Easton, William Edgar, 1861-? Dessalines  [Occurrences]
4. A Sunday Morning in the South: 7
      7: Johnson, Georgia Douglas, 1877(?)-1966 A Sunday Morning in the South  [Occurrences]
5. The Black Doctor: 6
      6: Aldridge, Ira Frederick, 1807(?)-1867 The Black Doctor>>  [Occurrences]
6. So What's New?: 6
      6: Dike, Fatima, 1948-? So What's New?  [Occurrences]


The Frequency by Source Report is useful if one is curious about how frequently an author uses term(s) in one work as compared to his/her other works or in his/her works as compared to others' works.

Any definable corpus or search can be used in generating this report. Unlike Context Display and Line-by-line reports, this report does not display text, only frequency statistics with links to occurrences displayed in Context Display format. Note: the sets of occurrences linked to from the frequency report are numbered in chronological order, not by frequency. In other words, clicking on the [Occurrences] link for a title at the top of the list could, for example, bring up occurrences numbered 21-28 instead of 1-8 because that title while ranked first in frequency is not first chronologically.

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6.5 SORTING RESULTS BY YEAR (FREQUENCY BY YEAR)

Results can be sorted by using a Frequency by Year report. This report indicates how many times a work occurred in documents in a particular year. To do this choose Frequency by Year at the bottom of the Simple or Multi-field Search screens.

A Frequency by Year report indicates the bibliographic criteria entered, the number of documents searched, the search term(s) entered, the number of unique forms derived from the search term(s) within the database, a list of those unique forms, and the total number of occurrences found in the defined corpus. Following this information, the report indicates the number of occurrences by title in descending order of frequency with a link to the digital table of contents for each title and a link to the occurrences found within that title.

This report also shows what terms within a database one's search criteria are searching (for example, one can discover that entering the search term craft* in the database searches for these unique terms). See below for an example (links to the table of contents and occurrences have been disabled).


Bibliographic criteria: none
Searching Entire Database for craft.*.
Number of Unique Forms: 17
Expanded Word List: craft | crafted | craftily | craftiness | crafts | craftsman | craftsmanship | craftsmen | craftspeople | craftsy | crafty | Craft | Craftily | Craftiness | Crafts | Craftsmanship | Crafty

Your search found 284 occurrences.

Context Display      Line by Line Display      Frequency by Author      Frequency by Source      Frequency by Year


Frequency by Year in descending numeric order:

1. 1935: 111
      110: Johnson, Georgia Douglas Camp, 1880(?)-1966 William and Ellen Craft  [Occurrences]
      1: Richardson, Willis, 1889-1977 Antonio Maceo  [Occurrences]
2. 2001: 36
      33: Bullins, Ed, 1935- A Ten Minute Play>  [Occurrences]
      2: Adeyanju, Tunde, fl. 1990-2003 The Ruling Junta  [Occurrences]
      1: Onwueme, Osonye Tess, 1955- Then She Said It  [Occurrences]
3. Undated: 15
      7: Clark, John Pepper, 1935- The Boat  [Occurrences]
      2: Gilkes, Michael, 1933- A Pleasant Career  [Occurrences]
      2: Clark, John Pepper, 1935- The Return Home  [Occurrences]
      1: White, Edgar Nkosi, 1947- The Mummer's Play  [Occurrences]
      1: Brown, Carlyle, fl. 2000-2003 Arabian Nights  [Occurrences]
      1: Alexander, Robert, fl. 1990-2002 Servant of the People  [Occurrences]
      1: Alexander, Robert, fl. 1990-2002 Bullet Proof Hearts  [Occurrences]


The Sorted by Year Report is useful if one is curious how frequently a word appears over time. Any definable corpus or search can be used in generating this report. Unlike Context Display and Line-by-line reports, this report does not display text, only frequency statistics with links to occurrences displayed in Context Display format.

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6.6 NAVIGATING DOCUMENTS FROM WORD SEARCHES

In Context Display one finds several options for viewing more context around one's matched term(s). In addition to "page" and paragraph, you'll see section and page. These divisions reflect the logical organization of the document from smaller parts (paragraph) to larger parts document. What each level represents depends upon the text itself.

Each scene is considered to be a document, no matter how long it is.

Any part of any level may be selected by simply clicking on it. Once a user goes to a second level of context, he/she will find the search term(s) still highlighted. One may also find the next and previous sections for each level if one should wish to "flip through" the document by sections (provided that a next or previous section exists for a given level).

Notes: In PhiloLogic notes never interfere when searching the text to which they refer. Note references are linked to notes and occurrences in text from notes are linked to page references. Note and page references can be found on any level of context (e.g., Page, Paragraph, Section, Document), but not from a first-level results screen.

Images: Images are displayed as both inline images and linked to images once the user pulls up any level of context (e.g., Page, Paragraph, Section, Document), but not from a first-level results screen.

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